Upon Jesus' declaration that one of the twelve will betray him in 9d, they ask him "Lord, is it I?" It is there (No. The St. Matthew Passion(German: Matthäuspassion) is a musical composition written by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach revised the piece considerably several times, but the final performance during his lifetime, in 1749, was similar in form to the first version. The following day (No. It is a several-hours-long musical drama that depicts, expands and comments on Chapters 26 and 27 from Matthew’s Gospel, starting with Jesus’s foretelling of the crucifixion and ending with Pilate’s placement of guards at the tomb. [6], At the time only men sang in church: high pitch vocal parts were usually performed by treble choristers. Bach seems to have stimulated the poet to write more of such verse in order to come to a full-fledged libretto for a Passion presentation combined with the Passion text chapters 26 and 27 in the Gospel of St Matthew. Soloists sing the words of various characters, also in recitative; in addition to Jesus, there are named parts for Judas, Peter, two high priests (Pontifex I & II), Pontius Pilate, Pilate's wife (Uxor Pilati), two witnesses (Testis I & II) and two ancillae (maids). Bach used the hymns in different ways, most are four-part setting, two as the cantus firmus of the two chorale fantasias framing Part I, one as a commenting element in a tenor recitative. In the revision of 1743–1746, it is also these words (the Vox Christi) that receive a sustained continuo part. The first scenes are in Jerusalem: Jesus announces his death (No. William Sterndale Bennett became a founder of the Bach Society of London in 1849 with the intention of introducing Bach's works to the English public. 45, Recitative, 'Petrus aber sass draussen im Palast' and Chorus, 'Wahrlich, du bist auch einer von denen' – meaning: Am I the one going to betray? ), are sung without this "halo". The work is for a choir, solo voices and orchestra. Like other Baroque oratorio passions, Bach's setting presents the Biblical text of Matthew 26–27 in a relatively simple way, primarily using recitative, while aria and arioso movements set newly written poetic texts which comment on the various events in the Biblical narrative and present the characters' states of mind in a lyrical, monologue-like manner. Highly contented, there the eyes fall asleep." The interpolated texts theologically and personally interpret the Gospel texts. 19), two oboes, in certain movements instead oboe d'amore or oboe da caccia, two violins, viola, viola da gamba, and basso continuo. Picander wrote text for recitatives and arias, and for the large scale choral movements that open and close the Passion. Additionally, Song of Songs 6:1 is used in the opening aria (with chorus) of Part Two (No. and Chorus II promptly asks Wen? Most prominent of those is the chorus “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden” (“O Sacred Head Now Wounded”), which stands as 54th of the 68 sections. Since 1975, it is usually assumed that Bach's St Matthew Passion was first performed on Good Friday 11 April 1727,[3] although its first performance may have been as late as Good Friday 1729, as older sources assert. Both use lettered subsections in some cases. The words tell the story of Jesus’s death on the crossas told in chapters 26 and 27 of the Book of St Matthewin the Bible. It sets chapters 26 and 27 of the Gospel of Matthew (in the Luther Bible) to music, with interspersed chorales and arias. [20], In the 1727/1729 version without music and text "Es dient zu meinem Freude", Recitative (with Chorus II: Was ist die Ursach aller solcher Plagen?) Listen to Bach: St. Matthew Passion by Gabrieli & Paul McCreesh on Apple Music. — What? The words tell the story of Jesus’s death on the cross as told in chapters 26 and 27 of the Book of St Matthew in the Bible. As in other Passion oratorios the backbone of the structure is the narration of the Gospel, in this case chapters 26 and 27 of the Gospel of Matthew in the German translation of the Luther Bible. The bass, referring to the "sweet cross" expresses in No. 17 appears to be missing, and movement No. The 20-year-old Felix himself conducted the rehearsals and first two performances by the Singakademie. In the morning (No. Despite their length, they are among Bach's most popular works. All sentences of the first stanza of Decius' hymn are used as cantus firmus throughout the movement by the ripienists. (How?) Two distinctive aspects of Bach's setting spring from his other church endeavors. 1, Chorus I/II: "Kommt, Ihr Töchter, Helft Mir Klagen"", "St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244: No. The narration of the Gospel texts is sung by the tenor Evangelist in secco recitative accompanied only by continuo. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Evangelist, a tenor voice, sings the Gospel text in a declamatory style called secco recitative, that is, with only a continuo accompaniment. The words of Jesus, also termed Vox Christi (voice of Christ), usually receive special treatment. My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Bach often uses madrigalisms, as in "Buß und Reu", where the flutes start playing a raindrop-like staccato as the alto sings of drops of his tears falling. Recorded before Sir Stephen Cleobury’s untimely passing in November 2019, King’s College presents a new accountof one of the greatest masterpieces in sacred music, Bach’sSt Matthew Passion. This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 20:55. The chorus sings, in the final chorale No. [11][12] This article is written using the NBA numbering system. These are not always sung by all different soloists. by Johann Sebastian Bach suite for two pianos by Anderson & Roe. [25], When Felix Mendelssohn was preparing his revival performance of the Passion in 1829 in Berlin (the first performance outside Leipzig), he cut out "ten arias (about a third of them), seven choruses (about half), [but] only a few of the chorales," which "emphasized the drama of the Passion story ... at the expense of the reflective and Italianate solo singing. Buy download online. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [15] The opening chorus, "Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen" is also notable for the use of chorale cantus firmus, in which the soprano in ripieno crowns a colossal buildup of polyphonic and harmonic tension, singing a verse of "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig". Mendelssohn's revival brought the music of Bach, particularly the large-scale works, to public and scholarly attention (although the St John Passion had been rehearsed by the Singakademie in 1822). The story for the work was taken mostly from the Gospel According to Matthew, but the actual verses that Bach set to music were provided by several contemporary poets. — to our guilt), after which Chorus I and II sing the last lines of Picander's text in separate blocks. On the way to the crucifixion site (No. Jesus is often referred to as "my Jesus". Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The second part presents the rest of the biblical story, including the Crucifixion, death, and burial of Christ. New St. Matthew Passion by Suzuki The final scenes of the Passion, that somehow lost tension in the 1999 rendition, is more poignant here, the evangelist and crowed, added by the more prominent orchestra and organ, deliver the text more persuasively and manage to retain tension without losing any of the spirituality. It is widely regarded as one of the greatest masterpieces of classical sacred music. It is the longest and most elaborate of all works by this Baroque master and represents the culmination of his sacred music and, indeed, of Baroque sacred music as a whole. 62 has no accidentals (A minor). The original Latin title Passio Domini nostri J.C. secundum Evangelistam Matthæum translates to "The Passion of our Lord J[esus] C[hrist] according to the Evangelist Matthew".[1]. Outside in the courtyard (No. Both include two transverse flutes (Choir 1 also includes 2 recorders for No. 30). (My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? For practical reasons the continuo organ is often shared and played with both orchestras. an-ti-qu-at-ed Wir setzen uns mit Tränen nieder (Chorus I & II). Sterndale Bennett 1845 edition of the Passion was to be the first of many (as Adolph Bernhard Marx and Adolf Martin Schlesinger's one in 1830), the latest being by Neil Jenkins (1997) and Nicholas Fisher and John Russell (2008). Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen – O Lamm Gottes unschuldig (Chorus I & II – Cantus firmus by ripieno soprano choir), 29. Excerpts of the work were performed on the American television program Omnibus on 31 March 1957 in the episode "The Music of J.S. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Three chorales are written by Paul Gerhardt and Bach included five stanzas from his O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden. (My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? In the St Matthew Passion there are three such extended choral movements: the opening chorus ("Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen", text by Picander and. In the St Matthew Passion, the story is slowed down, and turns inwards, and although this time Bach reflects far more on humanity’s collective role in Christ’s tragedy than in the St John, he does so through the intimacy of solo voices. The St. Matthew Passion tells the story of the last two days in the life of Jesus. 54 has one flat (D minor), and No. In 1725 Christian Friedrich Henrici, a Leipzig poet who used Picander as his pen name, had published Erbauliche Gedanken auf den Grünen Donnerstag und Charfreytag ("Edifying Thoughts on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday"), containing free verse suitable for a Passion presentation in addition to the Gospel text. ", "St Matthew Passion – German to English translation in interlinear format", "Fünftes Buch: Leipziger Jahre von 1723–1734" pp. He is betrayed, tried, crucified and buried. [citation needed] In all prior versions (1727/1729, 1736, and 1742), the continuo part was sustained in all recitatives. The St. Matthew Passion is impressive even by Bach’s standards. Nearly eight decades later the 20-year-old Felix Mendelssohn reintroduced the work when he conducted a 400-member chorus and a full orchestra in a 19th-century premiere at the Berlin Sing-Akadamie on March 11, 1829. Corrections? The two main schemes in use today are the scheme from the Neue Bach-Ausgabe (NBA, New Bach Edition) which uses a 1 through 68 numbering system, and the older Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV, Bach Works Catalog) scheme which divides the work into 78 numbers. ), followed by the question Wie? 1743–1746, it is also these what is st matthew passion ( the bridegroom – implying Christ.... There the eyes fall asleep. 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